Supplies and Building Strategies of Brazilian Indigenous Peoples as a Future for Structure
“We must always admit nature as an immense multitude of types, together with every a part of us, who’re a part of all the things”, says Ailton Krenak, famend indigenous chief, in his ebook Concepts to Postpone the Finish of the World. The tradition of native peoples doesn’t perceive humanity and the surroundings as issues which are separate or superior to one another, however slightly as components of an entire. By this specific understanding of the universe, these peoples are led to a delicate appropriation of the territory, with structuring beliefs which are additionally mirrored of their structure, elevating the very idea of sustainability to a different stage, since nature just isn’t seen as a useful resource for use, it is considered a part of the group.
Analyzing a normal context, it’s not possible to current the indigenous tradition and its constructive fashions in a homogeneous manner, for the reason that strategies fluctuate in accordance with the area the place they’re (or had been) inserted. Nevertheless, this relationship with the territory, sewn by means of understanding and respect for the place, crosses completely different cultures originating within the Americas and is without doubt one of the nice indigenous epistemologies that lends itself to rethinking modern architectural manufacturing.
Given the cultural significance of nature as one thing that defines the id of a individuals, being the mirror and materialization of every particular person — far more than a way of survival — its traits have to be cared for and preserved. On this manner, each the development strategies used and the chosen supplies mirror structural, aesthetic and sustainable qualities that enable not solely stability and safety, however are an ode to nature and collectivity.
For instance, the standard dwellings of the Guarani — essentially the most quite a few ethnic group in Brazil — often have their major construction made with tree trunks linked by vines. Wattle with rammed earth are used for sealing. For the roof, wood rafters and palm leaves and, finishing the constructing, the rammed earth flooring. This palette of pure and regional supplies signifies that it isn’t nearly understanding that they exist, however about mastering geography and biology to grasp the place, when and learn how to get hold of them. Straw, for instance, has an in depth sociological process for its removing so as to not injury the straw itself and, later, the subsequent harvest.
After all, relating to sturdiness, these buildings require periodic upkeep for the alternative of their constructive components. Nevertheless, in a number of cultures there’s an understanding of homes as short-term housing that final for one or two years because of fixed regrouping and separation of household models. However even in perenniality they stand out, since, even when they’re finally deserted, their constructive components are step by step reincorporated into nature with out destructive environmental impacts because of their pure origin — the true round structure that’s a lot mentioned these days.
Along with the exact selection of supplies and the entire understanding of their software, it’s value mentioning that the compositional methods additionally mirror the understanding of the local weather with passive instruments that enhance thermal consolation. An instance is the creation of beneficiant eaves appropriately oriented based mostly on the solar’s path, defending from gentle and in addition from rain, with roof slopes that fluctuate in accordance with the climate severity. On this sense, it’s value mentioning the scholar of indigenous tradition José Afonso Portocarrero when he states that in a world the place excessive know-how is so valued, indigenous individuals use solely design as know-how and are capable of present wonderful consolation. By utilizing pure supplies similar to straw and wooden, mixed with the excessive ceilings and aerodynamic form, good outcomes are generated at a low or nearly zero price, when there’s a preserved ecosystem close by that permits the gathering of fabric and when the group is organized for collective building.
As examples, the supplies and building strategies talked about above symbolize a small minimize inside the vastness that includes all of the indigenous ethnicities already cataloged in Brazil. Nevertheless, even small, they already supply a imaginative and prescient of the significance that ought to be given to this tradition as a supply of inspiration for the way forward for modern structure.
We notice that there’s sustainability of their architectures by design, since they all the time carry two major premises: using supplies obtainable on website and respect for the local weather of the area the place they’re situated. In different phrases, by means of the understanding and commentary of nature, naturally sustainable methods are created with elementary constructing ideas and low-impact supplies.
Throughout the wide selection of supplies that may be chosen in a design course of or the numerous formal and compositional choices that have to be made, the good lesson that indigenous tradition leaves for the way forward for structure will be summarized in a single commandment: understanding the place. Being conscious of the territory the place the constructing will likely be inserted is step one in the direction of a sustainable future. Mapping the present and obtainable supplies within the area, understanding the local weather, in search of low-impact passive strategies, respecting and interacting with the encircling group means the environmental and social respect that’s now extra crucial than ever.
This text is a part of the ArchDaily Matters: The Way forward for Building Supplies. Each month we discover a subject in-depth by means of articles, interviews, information, and initiatives. Be taught extra about our ArchDaily matters. As all the time, at ArchDaily we welcome the contributions of our readers; if you wish to submit an article or mission, contact us.